Qualities regarding grunts and you may deep grunts created by territorial men and grunts produced by female of your corkwing wrasse
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Dining table dos. For males, amount of music analysed is offered as the total number and the variety of musical analysed for each individual for the brackets. For males, amount of nest internet equivalent the number of guys recorded, for females, they stands for exactly how many nests where i observed them. Men voice features was basically averaged on the private level ahead of calculating the brand new exhibited studies. Mean ± SD | Average is offered towards level of pulses for every voice, years, heartbeat and you may hongkongcupid telefoonnummer prominent frequency

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Figure step three. Numerous pulse audio produced by the new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you can corresponding spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt of a beneficial territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt from a good territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt regarding a lady corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram configurations: 50 dB dynamic diversity, Hamming screen (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s window length (male and female grunt), 0.08 s screen length (men strong grunt)

Profile 3. Multiple heartbeat audio created by the fresh new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you may involved spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt off good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Strong grunt out-of a good territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt away from a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram setup: fifty dB active assortment, Hamming screen (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s screen length (female and male grunt), 0.08 s windows size (male deep grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.001, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-heart circulation tunes

The selection of demonstrably assignable clicks led to the study away from 102 male clicks from 29 video clips off 19 some one and you can 66 women presses out of 20 clips during the nests away from fourteen boys. Your selection of certainly assignable plops led to the study regarding 73 men plops regarding twenty eight video away from 18 movies and you can 66 females plops from 21 video clips in the nests from fourteen guys. Averaging male sounds for each personal men resulted in an example measurements of n = 18 for clicks, and you may n = 17 to own plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty-eight.cuatro = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).


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